《台灣女科技人電子報》090期—好文/好書推薦

好文/好書推薦

《女力時代:改寫全球社會面貌的女性新興階級》
作者:艾莉森‧沃爾夫(Alison Wolf)
譯者:許恬寧
出版社:大塊文化
出版日期:2015


內容簡介

女力時代來臨
性別差距日益縮小,全球7千萬專業女性精英階級崛起!

  本書作者艾莉森.沃爾夫為知名英國學者暨新聞媒體工作者,她以大量已開發和開發中國家的研究資料證實,近代自精英教育門戶敞開、工作機會出現轉變,再加上避孕藥的問世,女性的發展已經有了長足的進步。

  今日,史上第一次成千上萬女性花在董事會桌邊的時間,多過廚房流理臺。這些專業女性事業心強、學歷高,和男性精英一樣享受著天之驕子的生活。她們工作時間長又晚婚(如果會結的話),領導著《財星》500大企業(Fortune 500),出現在《富比士》(Forbes)、《商業週刊》(Businessweek)等重要財經雜誌封面上。這些受過高等教育的女性是女性勞動力最頂層20%的人,她們已和男性相距甚微,遠離的是金字塔中底層其他女性的世界。

  這個在全球約有7千萬人、人數每天都在成長的新興階級,包含了下列特點:

  •學歷都在大學畢業以上,過去選擇捧鐵飯碗當老師,現在絕大多數從事專業工作,如經理人、銀行家、律師、醫師、顧問、科學家、分析師、工程師等。

  •較可能長期從事全職工作,如果結婚生子,大都在產後立刻衝回職場,在孩子還小時也多會繼續全職工作。30到35歲生第一胎很正常,而且「有錢人愈有錢,窮人生愈多孩子」。

  •會選擇和自己條件相近的配偶,負擔得起正規托兒服務與精英教育支出。不僅注重生活風格,也能維持一定的生活品質。由於較少從事無酬家務,因此合力促成「佣人階級」再現。如果是單身,大多懂得寵愛自己,不但能夠負擔時尚奢侈品,未婚女性的購屋趨勢也增多。

  •女性以往成為超級富豪的主因為財富繼承,今日白手起家的女性人數增多,如美國媒體天后歐普拉、《哈利波特》系列作者J.K.羅琳等都是,而且大多數白手起家的女億萬富翁是中國人。

  •女性參政程度提高,開發中國家(通常是非洲)和西方國家一樣多。全球至今已出現五十位以上的女性首相/總理,亞洲甚至出現爆炸性的「女性王朝」力量。

強力推薦

  這本書讀起來很像女性角色版的《槍炮、病菌與鋼鐵》⋯⋯沃爾夫的功力深厚,書寫不僅有廣度、更有深度。關於女性這個熱門議題,不論你自認有多少了解、是否認同沃爾夫的觀點,都能從這本書獲得一些新的見解。有些只是純粹讀來有趣,有些則會撼動你原本的觀點。──《紐約時報書評》(The New York Times Book Review)

  本書不僅研究詳盡、具有全球化觀點,而且資料扎實又豐富,把女性議題提升到一個全新的層次。──《華爾街日報》(The Wall Street Journal)

  沃爾夫完成一本內容詳盡、觀點聰穎,時而啟發、時具特色的分析性著作,為我們定義何謂現代「精英女性」。書中列出女性面對的所有選擇,並且分析不同行為的結果,引領我們不再盲目往前走。──《金融時報》(Financial Times)

  對所有想了解現代女性的人,這是一本非常重要的代表性著作。──《衛報》(The Guardian)

  本書探討多元面向,並且引用深入研究,告訴我們女性融入職場的重大進展。除了已經獲得的好處之外,沃爾夫還探討如果勞動市場要出現真正的平等,女性依舊得面對的種種挑戰。全書讀來不僅引人入勝、時而令人驚奇,也時而令人沮喪。沃爾夫替這項重要議題,提供才思敏捷、才華洋溢與博學的引導。──史迪格里茲(Joseph E. Stiglitz),2001年諾貝爾經濟學獎得主

  女性在職場上有長足進步,但沃爾夫在本書力促我們不要只看已有的進展,也要關注利益是如何獲得分配,以及被留在後頭的眾多女性。《女力時代》讓我們看到社會如何進步,但更重要的是,它也讓我們看到還有多長的路得走。──雅莉安娜‧哈芬登(Arianna Huffington),《哈芬登郵報》(The Huffington Post)創辦人

  沃爾夫替女性與現代經濟的相關論述,提出清楚、卓越、具有原創性的傑出貢獻。如果你關心今日世界的女性、工作與家庭,一定得讀這本熱情洋溢、道出許多事實的著作。──克里斯蒂雅‧弗里蘭(Chrystia Freeland),《財閥》(Plutocrats)作者

  強而有力、論點精闢、發人深省、具原創性──這是令人信服的思想家的傑出著作。──提姆‧哈福特(Tim Harford),《親愛的臥底經濟學家》(Dear Undercover Economist)作者

  沃爾夫替「兼顧一切」(having it all)的老議題,提供大量具有價值且時常令人吃驚的資料。她提出令人信服的說法,告訴我們專業精英女性的進展已經帶來社會變革,但她們和沒那麼得天獨厚的姐妹則有截然不同的人生經歷。──安妮瑪麗‧斯勞特(Anne-Marie Slaughter),新美國基金會(New America Foundation)總裁
  

作者簡介

艾莉森‧沃爾夫(Alison Wolf)

  榮獲英國司令勳章,現任英國上議院中立議員、倫敦國王學院公部門管理洛伊‧葛林芬爵士教授(Sir Roy Griffiths Professor of King’s College London),以及該校大學政策研究國際中心主任。曾替眾多國際知名媒體撰寫文章,現為BBC第四電台《分析》(Analysis)節目主持人。

  沃爾夫在英美兩國擔任政策分析師與學者,為已開發與開發中國家政府提供建言,2011年為英國政府完成重要的職業教育檢討〈沃爾夫報告〉(“The Wolf Review”)。

譯者簡介

許恬寧

  台大外文系學士、愛丁堡大學文化研究所碩士,現為專職譯者,譯有《是你讓工作不一樣》、《海盜共和國》、《蘋果橘子思考術》、《老虎、蛇和牧羊人的背後》、《為什麼我們這樣生活,那樣工作?》(合譯)、《無敵》(合譯)、《征服者》、《蘋果內幕》等書,以及《BBC知識》與《孤獨星球》雜誌文章。


 

《大正日本:百花盛放的新思維、奇女子》
作者:茂呂美耶
出版社:遠流
出版日期:2015


內容簡介

說日本、寫日本第一人茂呂美耶,
從明治維新到大正浪漫,
勾勒百年前有如燦爛煙火的大和盛世。

  明治時代末期(十九世紀尾聲),產業經濟、社會文化在西化影響下繁盛發展,是一個明亮華麗的時代。緊接的大正時代,由於第一次世界大戰戰爭景氣推波助瀾,日本國力攀向高峰,並出現一批「新中間層」的實業家和上班族;教育運動與女性解放運動蓬勃興盛,也培育出有識之士和「新女性層」,女性有機會從事新行業,同時也進一步參與社會。

  以都市為中心發展出大眾文化,藝術、文學與藝能娛樂,無不充滿自由主義氛圍,活潑而繽紛;報紙、雜誌等傳播媒體紛紛崛起,無論政治或社會思潮,與強烈變動的西方世界共同激盪出活力新國度。

  ◆日本近代史上規模最大的群眾運動主婦白米暴動延燒全國,體現大正民主精神
  ◆受惠戰爭景氣順勢而起的新貴實業家與新興產業
  ◆關東大地震促成大眾食堂普及,中產階級上班族的最愛
  ◆博覽會、賞花與看電影,大正時期三大最受歡迎休閒活動
  ◆「今日帝國劇院、明日三越百貨」的富裕主婦與辛勤的職業婦女,形成強烈對比
  ◆《青鞜》雜誌號召知識女青年,推廣女性覺醒思想、促進婦女解放運動
  ◆女優與偶像誕生的時代,舞台魅力驚人的國際巨星與魔術女王應運而出

作者簡介

茂呂美耶(Moro Miya)

  日本埼玉縣人,生於台灣高雄市,國中畢業後返日。1986年起在中國鄭州大學留學兩年。網路暱稱Miya,愛與讀者閒話家常日本文化,深受華文讀者愛戴,是知名的日本文化達人。

  著作:
  《明治日本》《戰國日本》《戰國日本Ⅱ:敗者的美學》《物語日本》《江戶日本》《平安日本》《傳說日本》《歐卡桑的尖嘴兒子》《乙男蟻女》【字解日本】《茂呂美耶的歷史手帳》《漢字日本》

  譯作:
  【半七捕物帳】【陰陽師】《虞美人草》

  監修:
  《白髮鬼談》《青蛙堂鬼談》《鰻男鬼談》【沙門空海唐國鬼宴】


 

《Advancing Women in Science》
作者:Pearson, Willie, Frehill, Lisa M., McNeely, Connie L.
出版社:Springer International Publishing
出版日期:2015

內容簡介

Many countries have implemented policies to increase the number and quality of scientific researchers as a means to foster innovation and spur economic development and progress. To that end, grounded in a view of women as a rich, yet underutilized knowledge and labor resource, a great deal of recent attention has focused on encouraging women to pursue education and careers in science — even in countries with longstanding dominant patriarchal regimes. Yet, overall, science remains an area in which girls and women are persistently disadvantaged. This book addresses that situation. It bridges the gap between individual- and societal-level perspectives on women in science in a search for systematic solutions to the challenge of building an inclusive and productive scientific workforce capable of creating the innovation needed for economic growth and societal wellbeing.

This book examines both the role of gender as an organizing principle of social life and the relative position of women scientists within national and international labor markets. Weaving together and engaging research on globalization, the social organization of science, and gendered societal relations as key social forces, this book addresses critical issues affecting women’s contributions and participation in science. Also, while considering women’s representation in science as a whole, examinations of women in the chemical sciences, computing, mathematics and statistics are offered as examples to provide insights into how differing disciplinary cultures, functional tasks and socio-historical conditions can affect the advancement of women in science relative to important variations in educational and occupational realities.

Edited by three social scientists recognized for their expertise in science and technology policy, education, workforce participation, and stratification, this book includes contributions from an intellectually diverse group of international scholars and analysts and features compelling cases and initiatives from around the world, with implications for research, industry practice, education and policy development.

作者簡介


Willie Pearson, Jr., is Professor of Sociology in the School of History, Technology, and Society at Georgia Institute of Technology. He specializes in the sociology of science and is the author or editor of several books and monographs and numerous articles and chapters. Pearson has held research grants from the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF), U.S. National Endowment for the Humanities, Sloan Foundation and U.S. Department of Justice. He is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and was selected Distinguished Lecturer in Sigma Xi’s Distinguished Lectureship Program. For several years, he served as the Committee on Women in Science, Engineering and Medicine, U.S. National Academies. He has served as chair of the Committee on Equal Opportunities in Science and Engineering, NSF and as chair of the Committee for Science, Engineering and Public Policy, AAAS. In 2001, he was designated Lifetime National Associate of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). Currently, he sits on several editorial boards and on advisory committees for NSF, the Burroughs Wellcome Fund and NAS.

Lisa M. Frehill is a Senior Analyst at Energetics Technology Center (ETC) providing subject matter expertise to the U.S. Department of Defense Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics Development Office. Prior to her position at ETC, she served as Executive Director of the Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology and was an Associate Professor of Sociology at New Mexico State University (NMSU). Since 1991, her research has focused on gender, science and technology, with an emphasis on human capital issues within the international context. While at NMSU, she was the principal investigator and director of a U.S. National Science Foundation funded ADVANCE Institutional Transformation project. She is a research methodologist whose numerous articles, book chapters, technical reports and other publications present social science findings to scientists and engineers using data from various U.S. national and international data sources. Her recent projects have focused on evaluating programmatic impacts on science and engineering human capital.

Connie L. McNeely is Professor of Public Policy and Co-Director of the Center for Science and Technology Policy at George Mason University. Her teaching and research address various aspects of organizational behavior and work and occupations, science and technology policy, public policy, law and governance, social theory, and culture. Emphasizing comparative and historical perspectives, her work has engaged questions on international development and organization and issues related to race, ethnicity, nation and gender. She currently directs major projects on scientific networks and on diversity in the science and technology workforce and leads an International Research Group on Global Innovation in Science and Technology. She also has conducted research on education, culture and innovation, and healthcare and has ongoing projects examining cultural and institutional dynamics and matters of citizenship and polity participation. Dr. McNeely has numerous publications and is active in several professional associations, serves as a reviewer and evaluator in a variety of programs and venues and sits on several advisory boards and committees.